An emotional state experienced as a result of felt threat to the self. Anxiety arises when EGO can’t cope too much of:

  1. demands of the ID
  2. demands of the EGO
  3. external danger

In order to protect itself against anxiety and threat, EGO uses defense mechanism.

EGO defense system, that may be distorting reality:

  1. Repression: blocking unpleasant/unacceptable thoughts by pushing them into the unconscious (forgetting events of the painful childhood).
  2. Regression: reverting back to a stage that was satisfying (a boss showing temper tantrums like a child, or acting like a baby).
  3. Displacement: redirecting the expression of an unwanted desires or impulses to a substitute rather than the actual target (beating children when a wife can’t express anger toward husband).
  4. Rationalization: in order to justify one’s behavior, one develop a socially acceptable explanation or reasoning (going for a second marriage saying that the first wife was quarrelsome).
  5. Denial: refusing to acknowledge or accept anxiety provoking thoughts or impulses (being a heavy smoker but saying “I am an occasional smoker”).
  6. Projection: attributing one’s unwanted thoughts and impulses to others (a person takes bribe and blames the organization for paying him not enough salary).
  7. Sublimation: converting unwanted impulses into socially approved thoughts, feelings and actions (disliking the in-laws but behaving in a very friendly manner, or becoming a stamp collector to overcome the impulse of steal).

Basic anxiety is a major concept. If the environment is hostile and the child feels lonely and isolated, then this anxiety develops. It can be overcome by proper parental nurturing. 

Basic hostility:

  • children develops such hostility if parents are overly strict, punishing, indifferent or inconsistent.
  • children feel very aggressive and hostile, but can’t express it. Repressed hostility leads to anxiety.

Social interaction and interpersonal styles: the ways in which people interact with each other:

  1. Moving away from others: seeking self sufficiency and independence.
  2. Moving toward others: being compliant and dependent.
  3. Moving against others: trying to gain control,power and independence.

Neurosis arise from emotional conflicts that arise from childhood experiences and disturbances in interpersonal relationships in later life.

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