An emotional state experienced as a result of felt threat to the self. Anxiety arises when EGO can’t cope too much of:
- demands of the ID
- demands of the EGO
- external danger
In order to protect itself against anxiety and threat, EGO uses defense mechanism.
EGO defense system, that may be distorting reality:
- Repression: blocking unpleasant/unacceptable thoughts by pushing them into the unconscious (forgetting events of the painful childhood).
- Regression: reverting back to a stage that was satisfying (a boss showing temper tantrums like a child, or acting like a baby).
- Displacement: redirecting the expression of an unwanted desires or impulses to a substitute rather than the actual target (beating children when a wife can’t express anger toward husband).
- Rationalization: in order to justify one’s behavior, one develop a socially acceptable explanation or reasoning (going for a second marriage saying that the first wife was quarrelsome).
- Denial: refusing to acknowledge or accept anxiety provoking thoughts or impulses (being a heavy smoker but saying “I am an occasional smoker”).
- Projection: attributing one’s unwanted thoughts and impulses to others (a person takes bribe and blames the organization for paying him not enough salary).
- Sublimation: converting unwanted impulses into socially approved thoughts, feelings and actions (disliking the in-laws but behaving in a very friendly manner, or becoming a stamp collector to overcome the impulse of steal).
Basic anxiety is a major concept. If the environment is hostile and the child feels lonely and isolated, then this anxiety develops. It can be overcome by proper parental nurturing.
- children develops such hostility if parents are overly strict, punishing, indifferent or inconsistent.
- children feel very aggressive and hostile, but can’t express it. Repressed hostility leads to anxiety.
Social interaction and interpersonal styles: the ways in which people interact with each other:
- Moving away from others: seeking self sufficiency and independence.
- Moving toward others: being compliant and dependent.
- Moving against others: trying to gain control,power and independence.
Neurosis arise from emotional conflicts that arise from childhood experiences and disturbances in interpersonal relationships in later life.
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